Equine Health Archives - Life Data® Blog

Insulin Resistance in Horses

Insulin Resistance in Horses Blog

What is Equine Insulin Resistance?

The most basic explanation when discussing Insulin Resistance in horses is that we are dealing with an insulin problem within the horse. When a horse consumes carbohydrates, the pancreas is triggered to produce and release insulin. Insulin regulates and lowers glucose levels in the bloodstream by assisting the transport of glucose into the cells. When we have an Insulin Resistance problem, the cells become resistant to the action of insulin. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin in the attempt to regulate blood sugar. Blood glucose levels begin to rise along with insulin levels when the pancreas reaches the limit of insulin production. 

Horses at Risk of Insulin Resistance

Although all horses are at risk of developing insulin resistance, factors such as age, diet, exercise, and genetics can increase the risk. For example, certain breeds are more conducive to developing insulin resistance. These breeds include:

  • Morgans
  • Pasa Finos
  • Andalusians
  • Arabians
  • Peruvian Pasos
  • Mustangs
  • Ponies
  • Minis
  • Donkeys

Another example is the average age of these horses. If we look at the correlation between age and Insulin Resistance, horses in the 5-15 age range are predisposed to the development of Insulin Resistance. Insulin Resistance is a metabolic issue, so diet and weight also play a significant factor. Horses that are overweight with a body condition score (BCS) between 7 and 9 or who receive diets rich in sugar and carbs have a higher risk of developing Insulin Resistance than a horse who receives regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Clinical Signs of Equine Insulin Resistance

Overweight Horse
Horse with a Body Condition Score of 8

Since Insulin Resistance is a metabolic problem occurring within the horse, it may be difficult to see the signs of a problem. A common warning sign that can be associated with the development of Insulin Resistance is an obese horse.  Other signs we can look at include:

  • Fast weight gain
  • Inability to lose weight
  • Fatty deposits on the body of the horse
  • Development of a “cresty” neck
  • Loss of topline
  • Increased appetite
  • Excessive thirst and urination
  • Inflammation
  • Frequent bouts of laminitis

Laminitis & Insulin Resistance

Most Insulin Resistant horses are prone to bouts of laminitis. This can be attributed to the abundance of fat tissue, which is extremely common in insulin-resistant horses. In overweight horses, research has uncovered evidence that there is an “insulin resistance” hormone factor produced by the excessive adipose (fat) tissue that contributes to the cells’ inability to uptake glucose from the bloodstream. Adipose tissue may also contribute to higher cortisol levels.  The high glucose and cortisol levels are inflammatory and therefore predispose the horse to laminitis. We highly recommend including a quality hoof supplement in the diet of these Insulin Resistant horses

Preventing Insulin Resistance in Horses

The first ten years of your horse’s life often sets the stage for the development of metabolic conditions. Horse owners should start providing the correct nutrients and a balanced diet to the horse at conception. This balanced diet must be continued throughout the horse’s life to maintain health and prevent future metabolic problems. Other factors that can help prevent the development of Insulin Resistance:

  • Regular work and/or exercise
  • Maintaining a healthy body condition score
  • Feeding grass/hay with a quality hay balancer
  • Refraining from feeding “sweet” feeds or treats

Caring for the Insulin Resistant Horse

There is no cure for Insulin Resistance, but we can help make the life of these horses as comfortable as possible. The first step in this process is to examine the horse’s current diet and develop a feeding plan that will assist the horse in dropping excess weight. This new diet will be focused on reducing the number of sugars and carbs the horse consumes daily. This means no sweet feeds, limited treats, and no grasses with high fructan. Grasses likely to have high fructan content include:

  • Fertilized and growing pastures
  • Pastures stressed from drought or frosts
  • Grazing in the afternoon and evening
  • Tall fescue and ryegrass

Monitored grazing, dry lotting, and grazing muzzles may also be necessary depending on the horse and pasture.

Adding exercise to the horse’s daily routine is the next step. If the horse is not accustomed to exercise, it should be introduced slowly, 2-3 times a week, and built up over time. Eventually, we want the horse to exercise daily with body condition steadily improving.

Supplementation for Insulin Resistance

Supplementation is vital for horses with Insulin Resistance, especially when we begin cutting calories from the diet. We want to cut calories without cutting the horse’s required daily nutrients. If the horse’s diet is not balanced nutritionally, we are not providing the support needed to maintain our horse’s health.

As mentioned above, a quality hoof supplement is essential for insulin-resistant horses to help improve hoof wall density. A denser hoof wall is more resilient to the effects of laminitis and may reduce the risk of founder. One good option is to utilize a hay and pasture balancer alongside a hoof supplement to replace the missing nutrients from the low-calorie diet. Another option is to use a quality hoof supplement and a supplement specifically formulated to support horses with Insulin Resistance.

Life Data® Insulin R Formula and Farrier's Formula® Double Strength
Life Data® Insulin R Formula and Farrier’s Formula® Double Strength

Life Data® Recommendation

Farrier’s Formula® Double Strength and the new Life Data® Insulin R Formula work in conjunction to support horses with Insulin Resistance by supplying active ingredients to assist with glucose metabolism, fat metabolism, insulin action, and help reduce inflammation. Life Data® Insulin R Formula also supports proper metabolism to encourage weight control and general health.

Correlations Between Equine Hoof and Joint Health: PART 2

Correlations Between Equine Hoof and Joint Health

In Part 1 of “Correlations Between Equine Hoof and Joint Health,” we discussed how nutrition and body condition are two major factors influencing the health of equine hooves and joints. In part 2, we will concentrate on external and mechanical elements that could be creating stress on your horse’s hooves and joints. Many of the hoof and joint problems we see today can be attributed to the long-term effects of offloading, exposure to hard terrain, and unbalanced hooves.

Offloading

Offloading occurs when a horse “offloads” its weight onto one side to compensate for pain, injury, or discomfort. This is common for horses suffering from a joint injury or a hoof issue such as an abscess. The horse’s anatomy is designed for the entire weight of the horse to be evenly distributed between all four legs. The weight distribution becomes unbalanced when the horse offloads, causing the opposite leg(s) to bear additional weight. Over time, the extra weight may adversely affect the health of the hooves and joints. Some of the problems that can develop are:

  • Joint Injury
  • Hoof cracks
  • Chronic Arthritis
  • Laminitis
  • Poor hoof quality
  • Hoof imbalance
  • Joint inflammation

Offloading: What to Do?

If you witness your horse offloading weight, contact your farrier or veterinarian to resolve the issue as quickly as possible. Your farrier and veterinarian can work with your horse to discover what is causing the pain and discomfort in the hoof or joint. If there is no permanent damage, they can work towards a solution to bring relief. Depending on the initial issue and severity of the problem, your farrier’s expertise in balancing and/or correct shoe application will assist in reducing the effects of offloading.

Terrain Impact

Hooves on hard terrain

Although wet and muddy environments take a toll on hoof health, terrain also plays an essential aspect in the longevity of the joints and the health of the hooves. When the hoof strikes a surface, the force from the landing is absorbed throughout the leg. Higher levels of concussion occur with the harder landing surfaces such as frozen ground, concrete/pavement, and rocky terrain. Frequent impact on hard surfaces can weaken hoof and joint integrity, leading to one or more issues such as:

  • Joint deterioration
  • Bruised /swollen joints
  • Arthritis
  • Road founder
  • Sore and bruised soles
  • Hoof cracks
  • Hoof abscesses
  • Lameness

Terrain: What to Do?

The most straightforward answer is to reduce the amount of time your horse spends on these hard surfaces. Unfortunately, this may not be possible due to your location or the horse’s work. The best way to prevent damage from hard surfaces is to build healthy hooves and joints with nutrition. A healthy, stronger hoof is much more resilient to hard surfaces. Healthier hooves also reduce the amount of impact felt through the joints. Stronger joints are also more likely to stand up to wear and tear. Utilizing nutrition and hoof and joint supplementation is one of the easiest ways to promote hoof and joint health. Regular exercise and maintaining balanced hooves are also keys to prevention.

Unbalanced Hooves

Farrier trimming and balancing hoof

A horse with unbalanced hooves is like a car out of alignment, driving down the road wearing down the tires. Unbalanced hooves predispose horses to hoof and joint issues. Ideally, the horse’s hoof contacts the ground as a unit, distributing the weight impact force evenly across the weight-bearing surface of the hoof. An unbalanced set of hooves will lead to an uneven distribution of weight and force across the hooves and the lower limb joints. The imbalance adds additional strain to the health of the hoof and joints. The risk of injury from tripping, stumbling, or an unnatural landing is more likely to occur, especially in performance horses who are actively running, jumping, and exercising. Unbalanced hooves can affect both barefoot and shod horses, and several problems can develop from this issue:

  • Hoof distortion
  • Increase risk of thrush and white line disease
  • Hoof abscesses
  • Hoof or joint-related injuries
  • Laminitis
  • Joint deterioration
  • Hoof wall defects and separation
  • Heel bulb displacement
  • Microbial invasion

Unbalanced Hooves: What to Do?

The best solution is to work with your farrier to balance the hooves. Horse owners should pay close attention to their horse’s hooves. Clean and pick the feet daily and examine the hoof for changes or problems. Never be afraid to bring up a hoof balance concern with your farrier or veterinarian. You can learn more about the importance of well-balanced hooves in our previous blog.

Protecting hoof and joint health is essential to the longevity of your horse. If you believe your horse has sustained an injury or has developed an issue, consult with your farrier and veterinarian. Contact us if you have any questions regarding this article.

Support for Equine Insulin Resistance

Insulin R Formula Logo

Life Data® Insulin R Formula FAQ

The Life Data® Insulin R Formula is designed to help reduce the symptoms associated with insulin resistant horses such as occasional bouts of laminitis, obesity, regional adiposities, thin soles, lethargy, and low exercise tolerance. Life Data® Insulin R Formula supplies active ingredients to assist with glucose metabolism, fat metabolism, insulin action and help reduce inflammation. The formula supports proper metabolism to encourage enhanced weight control and general health.

Research Behind Life Data® Insulin R Formula

Life Data® Insulin R Formula was formulated based on research, including whole blood macro and trace mineral analysis. Test results from horses diagnosed with insulin resistance were compared to healthy horses. The research was performed in our in-house laboratory equipped with conventional equine hematology and chemistry equipment (Abaxis HM5 and VetScan VS 2) and specialized equipment such as CEM Mars 6 microwave digestion and Thermo iCAP RQ ICP-MS.

Insulin Resistance Testing and Field Trials

Diagnostic testing, insulin testing, and other additional tests were performed by the horse owner’s veterinarian. Life Data conducted two years of field-trial testing on insulin resistant horses, with intermittent retesting on these horses. A survey of the 20 horses completing the field-testing trials showed that 50% of horse owners reported the product had “Pronounced Improvement” of “General well-being”, 35% showed some improvement and 15% reported no improvement.

Support for Equine Insulin Resistance

In addition to the benefits of Life Data® Insulin R Formula, Farrier’s Formula® or Farrier’s Formula® Double Strength given along with Life Data® Insulin R Formula helps build the connective tissue of the hoof wall, creates a denser hoof wall, and increases the growth rate to give the farrier more to work with.

Life Data® Insulin R Formula is not a treatment for insulin resistance, has not been proven to significantly reduce blood insulin levels, and is not intended to replace any veterinary prescribed therapeutics. A minimum of 6 to 8 months of administration is required before owners typically notice any changes in their horse. Additional information about the Life Data® Equine Nutrition Research program, the blood testing laboratory, and the Life Data® Insulin R Formula can be found on our website www.lifedatalabs.com .

Our goal is to help horses. By determining how nutrition impacts horses with specific conditions we hope that specific dietary changes can prevent these conditions or improve the lives of afflicted horses.

Ingredients that Benefit Horses with Insulin Resistance

Life Data® Insulin R Formula Active Ingredients:

  • Inositol
    • Also known as vitamin B8, has been shown in laboratory studies to increase insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling
      • (The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Volume 24, Issue 2, February 2013, Pages 457-466; Int J Endocrinol, 2018; 2018: 1968450.)
  • Choline
    • Works synergistically with inositol as components of the phospholipids in cell membranes. Choline and phosphatidylcholine intake have been associated with a lower Type 2 diabetes risk in Finnish men.
      • (European Journal of Nutrition volume 59, pages 3857–3861 (2020))
  • Thiamine
    • Or vitamin B1, is essential for glucose metabolism
      • (Acta Diabetol. 2008 Sep;45(3):131-41. doi: 10.1007/s00592-008-0042-y.)
  • Chromium
    • Is necessary for proper insulin function and to help maintain appropriate blood glucose levels. Chromium helps maintain insulin receptor function on cells.
      • Human research: (Diabetes Educ. 2004;Suppl:2-14.)
  • Vitamin E
    • (Supplied as natural source vitamin E) Is an antioxidant that helps reduce inflammation and resulting tissue damage. Oxidative stress from a lack of antioxidants may contribute to insulin resistance. Sufficient vitamin E is usually present in green pasture grass; however, is deficient in stored hay. Vitamin E has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in overweight human patients.
      • (Diabetes Care 2004; 27(9):2166–2171)
  • Tyrosine
    • An amino acid, helps regulate thyroid and adrenal hormones. Tyrosine is a building block of thyroid hormones and is therefore involved with metabolism.
  • Threonine
    • An essential amino acid, is necessary for collagen formation.
  • Vitamin D3
    • Functions as a hormone as it circulates through the blood stream. Fresh pasture grass contains vitamin D2; however, vitamin D levels drop quickly in stored hay. Horses stalled due to metabolic issues with pasture restriction may not receive enough sunlight for the skin to produce sufficient vitamin D. [Vitamin D reduces insulin resistance probably through its effect on calcium and phosphorus metabolism and through up regulation of the insulin receptor gene.
      • (Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome volume 5, Article number: 8 (2013))]
  • Copper Amino Acid Complex
    • Low copper levels have been associated with insulin resistance and higher iron levels.
  • Proprietary Silicon Complex
    • Contains macro and trace minerals that are typically in low levels in the whole blood of horses with insulin resistance, as determined by research conducted in the Life Data® blood testing laboratory.
Product Char for Specific Conditions

Good for the Sole

Farrier Trimming Hoof Sole

No part of the horse “takes a beating” like the sole of the hoof. The horse’s sole and hoof share the responsibility in supporting the weight of the horse while withstanding the different terrains when running, jumping, trail riding, or performing. Rocks, concrete, mud, grass, and other surfaces take a toll on the bottom of the hoof. Therefore, a healthy sole is vital to the horse.

An unhealthy sole can limits a horse’s performance, lead to severe hoof related issues such as abscesses, thrush in horses, white line disease, or canker. Horse owners can take steps to build and manage a healthy sole by understanding its function, preventing factors that negatively impact its health, and promote sole quality through daily maintenance, diet, and nutrition.

The Function of the Horse’s Sole

The bottom of the hoof consists of the sole (the concave portion) and frog (the ”V” shaped tissue)  surrounded by the hoof capsule. The average sole should be concave measuring approximately 3/8 to 1/2 inches thick. The sole plays important functions in the horse’s mobility by helping to distribute weight and  protect the coffin bone.

The coffin bone is the main bone located within the hoof capsule. It is surrounded by laminae which attaches the coffin bone to the hoof wall. The sole lies beneath the coffin bone and helps support and protect the internal anatomy of the hoof capsule from the external environment.

Thin or compromised soles allow excess stress to be applied on to the coffin bone especially on hard or rocky surfaces. The excess stress encourages a multitude of hoof related issues to develop. Promoting sole quality is essential in developing hoof quality and prolonging the usefulness of your horse.

Factors that Affect the Horse’s Sole

There are three major factors that horse owners must manage:

  • Nutrition
  • The Environment
  • Hoof Care Maintenance

The mismanagement of any of these factors can weaken the sole and predispose the hoof to several issues.

  • Improper nutrition through an imbalanced diet can lead to nutritional excesses or deficiencies in the horse. This imbalance directly affects the hoof by developing poor hoof and sole quality that is less resilient to bacteria, cracks, and other issues.
  • The environment can be just as harmful by predisposing hooves to bacterial infections and fungal invasions. Overly wet environments also soften the hoof wall and sole, weakening the protection they provide.
  • Hooves that are not properly managed through farrier work and daily cleanings can become packed with debris. A sole packed with debris cannot properly “breathe.” Thus, building an environment perfect for anerobic bacteria.

You can learn more about the factors that affect hoof quality in our previous blog article.

There is an extensive list of hoof related problems associated with the sole. Managing these factors act as a preventive measure against this long list. The sole can be subjected to a multitude of conditions including:

  • Bruising
  • White line disease
  • Contracted soles
  • Corns
  • False soles
  • Founder/laminitis
  • Hoof abscesses
  • Prolapsed soles
  • Puncture wounds
  • Subsolar abscess
  • Thin soles
  • Thrush
  • Canker
  • and more…

Promoting Hoof Quality

Proper Nutrition for the Equine Sole

A balanced diet that provides the essential nutrients important for hoof growth nurture a sole that is thicker, stronger, and more resilient to bacteria and injury. Horse owners can achieve this by taking the horse back to its basic diet and strengthening the diet with a hoof supplements for horses. For example, Farrier’s Formula® can help rebuild and maintain sole strength. Feeding balanced nutrition along with Farrier’s Formula® can also help in the recovery of a sole related hoof problem or injury.

Nutrition is especially important to horses suffering from acute or chronic laminitis. So, Horse owners may want to consider adding a supplement specialized for horses with laminitis. Life Data® Lamina Formula was formulated as a complimentary supplement to be given with Farrier’s Formula® to help support the laminitic horse and assist in laminitis recovery.

Protecting External Hoof Health

The horse’s sole is the first line of defense between the horse and the ground. Its always be in contact with the environment against rain, sand, mud, urine, feces, bacteria, and countless other matter. As a result, constant exposure to the environment will wear down the sole’s defenses and allow unwanted debris, bacteria, and fungi to penetrate and invade the hoof.

Managing the horse’s exposure to the environment helps maintain the health of the sole. Reducing exposure to wet environments, maintaining clean stalls, and using non-caustic hoof topicals are all steps that can be used to protect not the entire hoof.

For example, if your horse is often exposed to wet and muddy environments, applying Farrier’s Finish® regularly will help maintain moisture balance. It can also help prevent hooves from becoming too soft from excess moisture.

Lastly, Using Life Data® Hoof Clay® around the frog and along the white line helps protect the sole from the bacterial invasions that cause Thrush and White Line Disease. Protecting your horse’s hooves externally protects new hoof growth that is developing internally.

Hoof Care

Proper hoof care is essential to managing sole health. Inspect and pick out each hoof daily to remove excess debris. Daily cleaning helps prevent Thrush, White Line Disease, and hoof abscesses. In addition, regular farrier appointments also help hoof quality by ensuring hooves remain balanced and not overgrown.

Strong soles are essential to maintain the health and usefulness of your horse. You can help your horse develop the best quality hoof genetics will allow through nutrition, environmental management, and proper hoof care. Consult with your farrier or veterinarian if you believe your horse has a hoof issue. If you have any questions on equine nutrition and supplementation feel free to contact us.

Equine Cushing’s Disease and PPID

Cushing’s Disease

Horse with Cushing's Disease

The number of horse’s affected by Cushing’s Disease (PPID) is steadily increasing in the United States as the horse population is living longer. Unfortunately, there are still many unanswered questions revolving around Cushing’s Disease and how it impacts the horse. Cushing’s Disease falls into the same category of diseases as Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance in that the extent of the problem is relatively “new” to the equine industry. Continued research into the disease and other metabolic problems must be conducted before we can fully understand the full extent of these diseases. What we do know about equine Cushing’s Disease can be used to help identify the disease early and assist in improving the overall quality of life for affected horses.

What is PPID in Horses?

PPID, or Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction, is another name used to identify Cushing’s Disease. Breaking down the name, PPID, helps us better define what is occurring in the Cushing’s horse. For example, “Pituitary” refers to the gland that is being affected in the horse. The pituitary gland in the horse is only as large as a prune and is located at the base of the brain and produces hormones in response to brain signals. The word “dysfunction” relates to the dysfunction occurring in the small middle region of the pituitary gland (Pars Intermedia). This dysfunction effects the inhibitory function of the gland, resulting in the excessive production of the hormone ACTH. The excess ACTH stimulates the adrenal gland to overproduce cortisol. High levels of circulating cortisol lead to a multitude of problems.

Signs of Cushing’s Disease in Horses

The average horse with Cushing’s Disease is around the age of 15, when signs of the disease appear. It is estimated that the disease will impact approximately 30% of the population of horses who are 15 years of age or older. It is beneficial for horse owners to watch for any signs of Cushing’s Disease, especially if they have an older horse, so that it may be diagnosed in the early stages. Early identification can make the disease easier to manage and increase the quality of life of the Cushing’s horse. Below is a list of early signs:

  • Increased lethargy
  • Regional shaggy hair coat
  • Delayed shedding
  • Loss of topline
  • Regional fat pockets
  • Abnormal sweating
  • Recurrent laminitis
  • Recurrent hoof abscesses

Cushing’s Disease can progress slowly, but the advanced stages can also develop unknowingly. These advanced stages are much more severe and have a greater impact on the horse’s health. Symptoms of the advanced stages of Cushing’s include:

  • Dull hair coat
  • Poor shedding
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Round abdomen (potbellied appearance)
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Regional adiposity
  • Poor performance
  • Loss of topline
  • Increased thirst/urination
  • Blindness
  • Delayed healing
  • Laminitis
  • Hoof abscesses
  • Suspensory ligament/tendon laxity 

Feeding a Horse with Cushing’s Disease

A horse’s diet plays a major role in every aspect of the horse’s overall health. As such, feeding a proper, balanced, and basic diet to a horse with Cushing’s Disease is one of the most beneficial lifestyle changes to make. Many horses with Cushing’s will struggle maintaining a normal weight, either developing an overweight or underweight body condition score. In either case, horse owners must be mindful of the calorie, carbohydrate, and sugar intake their horses consume daily. The addition of a quality hoof supplement is also recommended to help in the recovery of many of the hoof related issues that often develop from Cushing’s Disease. Below is our recommended feeding routine for horses with Cushing’s.

  • Grass/Hay
    • Be mindful of the sugar in the grass
      • You may consider limiting grazing
    • Allow grazing only in the morning to early afternoon hours
    • If the horse is overweight, consider a dry lot.
  • Additional Calories (Only for Underweight Cushing’s Horse)
    • Avoid carbohydrates
    • Remove all “Complete Feeds”
    • Shredded sugar beet pulp or copra (coconut pulp)
      • High in Fiber
      • Low in Carbs
      • Good option for underweight Cushing’s Horse
      • Soaking prior to feeding helps prevent choking and excess sugar

*Overweight horses will not require additional calories*

  • Farrier’s Formula®
    • Promote Hoof Quality
    • Assist in laminitis recovery
    • Assist in hoof abscess recovery and prevention
    • Improves hair coat and skin quality
  • Life Data® Adrenal Formula
    • New formulation from Life Data
    • Designed specifically for the support of Horses with Cushing’s

Life Data® Adrenal Formula

By conducting blood analysis research, Life Data® has discovered many correlations in horses diagnosed with Cushing’s Disease. Life Data® Adrenal Formula was formulated using this research and will provide additional support for horses with Cushing’s. The active ingredients may help improve the function of the adrenal gland, improve metabolism, regulate thyroid hormones, and reduce the effects of Cushing’s. It also provides essential antioxidants and helps rebuild healthy connective tissue. Life Data® Adrenal Formula is designed to help promote:

  • Normal adrenal gland function
  • Improved glucose metabolism
  • Rebuilding of healthy connective tissue
  • Regulation of thyroid and adrenal hormones
Adrenal Formula for Equine Cushing's Disease

Treating Cushing’s Disease in Horses

Unfortunately, no cure for Cushing’s Disease has been found. If you believe your horse may have Cushing’s Disease, it is important to consult with your veterinarian as soon as possible. Your veterinarian can conduct yearly tests to evaluate your horse’s condition and provide medication to assist in regulating symptoms. Providing proper nutritional support along with Farrier’s Formula® and Life Data® Adrenal Formula can also assist in relieving the effects of Cushing’s Disease. If you have any questions regarding proper equine nutrition or any of the products mentioned, please contact us.

Old Nail Holes: An Open Door to Hoof Problems

Nail holes in hoof

The farrier comes, does their job, and everything is good. Hooves are trimmed, new shoes are set, and we don’t need to consider hoof care again for another 6 weeks. Right?

Unfortunately, a common mindset is “Hoof care is the responsibility of the farrier, and the farrier alone.” Many horse owners don’t consider the impact that nutrition, regular maintenance and the environment has on the hoof. Proper hoof care must be a daily objective by the horse owner. Best practices to help horse owners achieve and preserve quality hooves include:

  1. Feeding for hoof health
  2. Examining for signs of unhealthy hooves
  3. Regularly cleaning the hooves
  4. Treating/preventing bacterial invasions
  5. Keeping hooves conditioned in wet/dry periods

Even the smallest overlooked detail can be the difference between healthy and unhealthy hooves. For example, the small nail holes left behind after changing a shoe may not seem like a big deal, but they are an open door for bacterial infections and unwanted debris. In fact, old nail holes left unprotected can lead to the development of:

Old Nail Holes and The Farrier

Farriers are aware of the hoof problems that old nail holes, hoof cracks and other hoof defects can create. You may see your farrier pack old nail holes with a hoof clay or apply a hoof topical. This is a great practice to provide protection from invading microbes while the old nail holes and defects grow out. Unfortunately, these measures will not last and the process will need to be repeated regularly. Otherwise, the nail holes will be susceptible to microbial invasions once the initial applications have worn off. Waiting until the next farrier appointment is too long between applications. This is especially true to horses who are commonly exposed to:

  • Wet and muddy environments
  • Unclean paddocks or stalls
  • Sandy or rocky terrain

Protecting Old Nail Holes

Talking to your farrier is a great starting point in maintaining hoof quality and protecting your horse from hoof problems. Your farrier can advise you on how to properly clean the hoof and recommend products to help address any issues. Below are a few helpful tips to also consider:

Life Data Hoof Clay Under Shoes
  1. Properly Clean the Hoof Daily

    • Old nail holes easily become packed with mud, grime, feces, and other unwanted debris. Picking and cleaning the hoof not only clears the unwanted debris but opens those areas of the hoof to oxygen. A hoof packed with debris is unable to “breathe.” The hoof eating microbial invasions that cause conditions like crumbling horn and White Line Disease thrive in low oxygen environments. Old nail holes provide an ideal environment for this to occur.
  2. Regularly Pack Old Nail Holes with Life Data® Hoof Clay®

    • Life Data® Hoof Clay® is a non-caustic anti-microbial clay that can be used to pack into old nail holes. This natural porous clay allows the continued flow of oxygen into the hoof wall while help preventing other debris from penetrating into the nail holes. The anti-microbial properties of Life Data® Hoof Clay® defend against the microbes that lead to  Thrush in Horses and White Line Disease.  Life Data® Hoof Clay is also non-caustic, so it is safe to apply with your own hands and will not burn or damage healthy hoof tissue.
      • For extra protection utilize Farrier’s Finish® following application of Life Data® Hoof Clay®.
      • Before the shoe is nailed on, ask your farrier to apply Life Data® Hoof Clay® over the white line area.
  3. Feed for Hoof Health

    • Your horse’s diet plays an important role in hoof quality and development. Utilizing a feeding program that is focused on hoof health will help develop a hoof that is more resilient to microbial invasions and other hoof related problems. Adding Farrier’s Formula® Double Strength, a hoof and coat supplement, will also promote quality hoof growth and expedite the time for old nail holes to grow out.
  4. Maintain Clean Environments

    • Unclean stalls, paddocks, and wet muddy pastures are ideal areas to predispose your horse to “hoof eating” microbial invasions. It is important to limit your horse’s exposure to these environments as much as possible. Remember, old nail holes act like a doorway for these microbial invasions. Exposing your horse to these conditions only increases the likelihood of developing a microbial invasion. If you know your horse will be exposed to these conditions, utilizing

Five Tips for Hoof Abscess Recovery

With the development of a hoof abscess, an energetic and active horse can suddenly become severely lame. It can happen quickly, painfully, and with no prior signs of a problem. Finding your horse in this state can be terrifying, especially if you’ve had little experience dealing with a hoof abscess. Luckily, with time, patience and proper treatment most horses will fully recover. In this blog, we will discuss five tips that can be utilized to assist in your horse’s recovery.

5 Tips for Hoof Abscess Recovery

1. Follow Veterinarian and Farrier Instructions

The treatment and recovery from a hoof abscess require a team effort from the farrier, veterinarian and the horse owner. The horse owner’s role and compliance among this team is vital to the horse’s recovery.  The responsibilities of day-to-day maintenance and the required care important for recovery fall on the horse owner’s shoulders. Neglecting these responsibilities can hinder the healing process or even create a more severe issue. It is also important that the horse owner trusts the decisions and treatment methods mapped out by the veterinarian and farrier.

2. Protect the Abscess Exit Wound

The pain that occurs from an abscess is due to exudate buildup that creates pressure within the hoof. To relieve the pain and begin healing, this pressure must be relieved.  Many treatment methods involve the surgical draining of the hoof abscess by the veterinarian. In some cases, the buildup will rupture out of the coronary band on its own. In either case, there will be an open wound where the pressure was relived. This wound is an open source for microbial invasions and debris to enter. This is especially true if the wound is located on the sole of the hoof. Infections, new abscesses or other issues can develop if the wound is not properly treated.

Your farrier or veterinarian may advise you to wrap the hoof depending on the location of the exit wound. If this is the case, follow their instructions carefully and regularly change the wrapping. Once the abscess has completely stopped draining, packing the exit wound with an anti-microbial clay may also be recommended. Packing the wound with a product, such as like Life Data® Hoof Clay®, not only assists in keeping out foreign material but the non-caustic ingredients in Life Data® Hoof Clay® will kill bacteria. It is also made using natural porous clay which will not block oxygen to the hoof.

  • *Do not utilize a hoof packing or topical that contains harmful chemicals or that blocks oxygen to the hoof.

3. Promote Hoof Quality

A hoof abscess will compromise the integrity, structure and quality of the hoof. The goal is to rebuild hoof quality to where it was, or better than it was before the abscess. This can be accomplished through quality hoof supplements, such as Farrier’s Formula®. Farrier’s Formula® will assist in the recovery by providing the nutrients essential for new and healthy hoof growth. Farrier’s Formula® will also develop a stronger hoof with a denser hoof wall and sole, making it more resilient to infections. Even after the hoof has regrown, we advise the continue feeding of Farrier’s Formula® to maintain hoof quality and to help prevent future hoof abscesses from developing. You can learn more about the relationship between hoof quality and recurring hoof abscesses by reading our previous blog article

You may also want to examine your horse’s diet during this time. Since your horse is not as active it may require less calories to maintain its current body weight. Overweight horses tend to have more hoof problems due to the extra weight the hooves are supporting. Switching your horse to its “basic diet” of grass and hay with support from a ration balancer, like Barn Bag®, can provide the daily nutrients needed without the excess in calories. You can feed Farrier’s Formula® and Barn Bag® together without the risk of over supplementation.

 You can follow the link here to learn more about the importance of a balanced equine diet.

4. Manage Environmental Conditions

The environment can make it more difficult for your horse’s hoof to heal after an abscess. As previously mentioned, the exit wound from the abscess acts as an entry point for microbial invasions and debris. Exposing your horse to excess moisture, urine, feces and mud will predispose your horse to continued infection. Keeping clean stalls, dry bedding, and limiting the hoof’s exposure to wet and muddy conditions assist in healing and maintaining the health of the hoof.

Utilizing a non-caustic hoof topical, such as Farrier’s Finish®, will provide extra protection from the environment and help control moisture balance in the hoof. Farrier’s Finish® contains a blend of Yucca Extract, tamed iodine and Tea Tree Oil for added protection against microbial invasions and the harsh effects of excrement. Farrier’s Finish® can also be applied over Life Data® Hoof Clay®.

Lastly, pay attention to the type of terrain surrounding your horse. Hard surfaces and rocky environments can typically further wear down the hoof. This wear and tear lead to the development of cracks, chips and other hoof defects. Loose pebbles and gravel can penetrate these defects or the recovering abscesses wound, thus creating another infection. This is especially important during recovery when the hoof may still be weakened and tender.

5. Maintain a Farrier and Maintenance Schedule

It is vital that you continue scheduling regular farrier appointments. Ensuring your horse’s hooves are balanced and, if needed, supported with the correct shoes will assist in the healing process. Your farrier will also monitor the recovery of the hoof and manage any other issues that may arise. With hoof abscesses it is typical for horses to unevenly distribute weight to relieve pressure off the infected hoof. In doing so, your horse’s other hooves become more susceptible to many hoof related issues such as cracks, splitting, laminitis and additional abscesses. Your farrier will help mitigate this issue through balancing and maintaining the other hooves.

Your farrier is not the only one responsible for your horse’s hooves. It is ideal that every horse owner ensures their horse’s hooves are being properly picked and cleaned daily. This ritual removes unwanted debris and acts as a preventive measure to future infections and hoof problems. Using the Life Data® Hoof Clay® to fill in old nail holes and hoof defects is also a recommended maintenance practice. Additionally, horse owners can use it on the white line and around the frog to help protect those areas from infections such as White Line Disease and Thrush in horses.

Hoof Abscess Recovery

Recovery from a hoof abscess can be a long and drawn out process. There is no easy route, but you can help the recovery along by fulfilling your horse’s needs.  Supporting your horse during this healing time can speed up recovery and build a better more resilient hoof. If you believe your horse is currently suffering from a hoof abscess, please seek the advice of your veterinarian or farrier as soon as possible. The sooner a hoof abscess is found and treated, the faster your horse will recover. If you have any questions on using Life Data® products to prevent hoof abscesses or to assist in recovery, please call us at 1-800-624-1873 or visit our website.

The Importance of a Healthy Equine Skin and Coat

As spring arrives, we tend to focus on our horse’s hair coat as they begin to lose their woolly winter coats. And, show season is just around the corner. We put a substantial amount of importance on the outward appearance of our horse, and rightfully so, but your horse’s outward appearance says more about your horse than you may know. Your horse’s beautiful coat is more than a bragging right. The quality of your horse’s hair coat reveals a lot about the overall state of your horse’s health. In fact, a decline in hair coat quality can be one of the first signs of a health-related issue, improper nutrition or poor maintenance.

Brushing Horse with Winter Coat

The Function of the Horse’s Coat

We can’t refer to equine hair without also discussing the equine skin. The horse’s hair coat, mane, tail and skin are all made of dermal tissue. Dermal tissue is the largest organ of the equine body. The hair coat and skin perform functions that contribute to the overall wellbeing and performance of your horse. A healthy hair coat and skin:

  • Helps protect from insects and micro-organisms
  • Insulates the body in colder weather
  • Produces natural oils to reflect sunlight and repel water
  • Cools the horse in warmer weather through sweat production
  • Provides natural beauty

Factors that Affect Equine Skin and Coat Quality

The development and management of a healthy hair coat does not happen overnight. There are several factors that can affect quality. Below are a few examples.

Genetics

  • Genetics is a factor over which we have no control. The genes your horse inherited can be the deciding difference between a beautiful versus a less than perfect hair coat. The goal is to give your horse the best hair coat that genetics can provide.

Nutrition

  • Nutritional deficiencies and/or excesses often contribute to the development of dull, thin, brittle or rough hair coats.
  • Selenium over supplementation will directly affect the quality of not only the skin and coat, but also the hooves. If your horse has poor hoof quality and brittle thin hair, you may want to investigate the amount of selenium in your horse’s diet and have the whole blood selenium levels tested.
  • Utilizing high-quality hoof supplements, like Farrier’s Formula®, will benefit ALL dermal tissue in the horse including the hooves, hair coat, skin, mane and tail. Farrier’s Formula® will provide the nutrients important for a quality skin and hair coat.

Environment

  • Parasites and microorganisms can interfere with hair growth, causing patchy and brittle hair. Fortunately, with advancements in equine medicine treatment options are available.
  • Insect bites can create itchy irritable skin. This can cause horses to bite or rub the afflicted area, resulting in patchy hair loss. Limited pasture time and sprays can help reduce exposure to insects. Healthy skin is more resilient to irritation from insect bites.
  • Long exposure to the sun may dull the color of your horse’s coat.
  • Long exposure to wet and muddy environments can cause the development of sores, hair loss, microbial infections and parasites.
Horse biting itchy skin

Disease and Equine Conditions

  • Different equine illnesses, diseases, and skin conditions can directly affect hair growth or even cause hair to fall out. A dull or brittle hair coat is not an uncommon side effect caused from an illness.
  • Some medications may also cause hair loss or a patchy coat. Check with your veterinarian if you begin to see this side effect.

Improper Maintenance

  • Neglecting your horse’s hygiene could negatively impact your horse’s hair coat and skin. A good grooming regimen is essential to a wonderful hair coat.
  • Excessive bathing, shampooing and conditioning can also strip the horse’s coat of important natural oils. This can result in a duller hair coat. It’s important to follow label instructions and leave the “deep cleaning” to important events or extreme dirt.
  • Lastly, consider the tools you are using in your grooming regimen and their purpose. For example, currycombs massage the skin which stimulates the production of the skin’s natural oils, whereas softer brushes are more effective at helping distribute those oils across the body of the horse. Using these combs in tandem, even during the winter when the coat is thickest, can help bring out the coat’s natural shine.  

Although many factors can negatively impact your horse’s skin and hair coat; balanced nutrition, environmental control and proper maintenance can help develop a coat that is truly breath-taking. Utilizing these factors to their fullest takes hard work and time but can create a coat worth remembering.

If your horse is losing hair or has developed a skin condition, consult with your veterinarian to ensure there is no underlying problem. Contact us at 1-800-624-1843 if you have any questions on utilizing a hoof and coat supplement, such as Farrier’s Formula®, to improve your horse’s hair coat.

Thrush in Horses

A “Thrushy Hoof” Isn’t a Healthy Hoof

Horse Hoof with mild thrush
Farrier Trims Hoof with Mild Case of Thrush

My horse’s hooves are healthy. They just have a little bit of Thrush,” is a statement we hear too often from individuals battling thrush. Unfortunately, Thrush in horses has become such a common occurrence that many horse owners do not give it the levity it deserves. It is important that the horse owner understands, a hoof with any amount of Thrush is NOT a healthy hoof!

In short, Thrush in horses is a microbial invasion of the sulci, or the grooves surrounding the frog, that often leads to an infection in the tissue of the frog. In previous blogs we have discussed what causes Thrush. Your horse’s hooves can be predisposed to Thrush by:

  • High humidity and wet environments
  • Stalls containing urine, excrement and excess moisture
  • Lack of oxygen to the frog area due to packed debris
  • Poor hoof maintenance
  • Improper trimming

Exposing your horse to one or more of these factors can create conditions conducive for Thrush development. Once Thrush has established, address it immediately. Even mild Thrush can become serious quickly.

Thrush, The Hoof and The Horse Owner

The first steps in preventing or treating Thrush in horses is to provide the necessary elements to promote the best quality hoof possible.

The health of your horse’s hooves is not your farrier’s responsibility alone. Treating and preventing Thrush will take joint effort from both you and your farrier. Thrush, and other hoof problems, will likely continue to develop and never resolve if you are not involved in the daily responsibility of caring for your horse’s hooves. Fulfilling this responsibility will help prevent future cases of Thrush. This responsibility can be broken down into three components.

  1. Maintenance
  2. Nutrition
  3. Environment

Hoof Maintenance

There is more to hoof maintenance than scheduling your farrier every six weeks. Proper hoof maintenance is a daily objective that the horse owner must manage.

  • Pick and Clean Hooves
    • A hoof packed with debris creates the perfect anaerobic, or low oxygen, environment for Thrush to develop and spread. As the horse owner, it is your responsibility to ensure your horse’s hooves are being picked clean daily.
    • If you remove the debris daily, Thrush will not likely have a suitable environment to develop.
  • Maintain a Regular Farrier Schedule
    • As mentioned in a previous blog, it is important to maintain a regular farrier schedule. Your farrier can help catch early signs of hoof related issues and assist in treating Thrush. Hooves that are grown out or not trimmed properly can trap unwanted debris, making it more difficult to keep the hoof clean and create an optimal environment for the growth of the anaerobic microbes associated with Thrush.
  • Remove Harmful Hoof Topicals
    • Many “Thrush Killing” hoof topicals on the market are caustic and damage or seal off healthy hoof tissue. This may kill the exposed Thrush microbes on the surface; however, the resulting denatured proteins not only seal the underlying tissue from oxygen, but also create a nutrient medium for any remaining microbes and future microbes to thrive. This often leads to patterns of recurring Thrush. It is important to stay away from caustic hoof remedies for Thrush
Cycle of Thrush in Horses
The Cycle of Equine Thrush

Equine Nutrition

You may be asking, “What role does Nutrition play when fighting Thrush in Horses?” Nutrition plays a vital role in the development of a healthy hoof. A healthy hoof is more resilient to the bacteria that causes Thrush. As the horse owner, it is your responsibility to ensure your horse receives a balanced diet that supports hoof health. You can learn more about proper equine nutrition here.

  • Hoof Supplementation
    • Quality hoof supplements can assist in developing new and healthier hoof growth. The nutrients provided will also strengthen the hoof, making it more resilient to chips and cracks, acting as entry points for the microbial invasions that lead to crumbly hoof horn, White Line Disease and Thrush. This new growth will also quicken the recovery time of the hoof.

Environment

Even with proper maintenance and nutrition, the environment can wreak havoc on your horse’s hooves. Most cases of Thrush are predisposed by environmental conditions. Leaving your horse in wet and mucky areas or in unclean paddocks can quickly destroy the hoof. You will promote chronic Thrush if your horse is regularly being exposed to these environments. It is important to consistently manage the environment surrounding your horse.

Poor environmental conditions for hooves
Poor Environmental Conditions for Hooves
  • Environmental Management
    • Keep stalls clean of excrement and as dry as possible.
    • Limit exposure, if possible, to wet and muddy paddocks and pastures.
    • Regularly apply a non-caustic hoof conditioner to control moisture balance, bind ammonia from excrement and kill bacteria.

When left unchecked, Thrush can become a serious issue and even lead to lameness. It is important to act at the first signs of Thrush and not wait until it becomes more serious. Through proper hoof management, horse owners can not only treat current cases of Thrush but can also prevent future cases from developing. Always consult your farrier and veterinarian if your horse develops any hoof related issue. If you have any questions on treating Thrush or on any Life Data® product, please contact us at cservice@lifedatalabs.com or call us at 1-256-370-7555.

Anhidrosis in Horses. What Can be Done?

Horse with Anhidrosis

What is Anhidrosis in Horses?

Anhidrosis in horses can be described as the inability or reduced capacity to sweat. Horses regulate their body temperature, much like we do, primarily through the evaporation of sweat. Anhidrosis can tremendously affect the horse’s ability to work, perform, and function. Without the full capacity to sweat, the horse is in danger of:

  • Overheating and having a heat stroke
  • Organ and muscle damage
  • Death

Is Your Horse at Risk?

The prevalence of anhidrosis in horses has been estimated to be between 2% to 6% of horses. All breeds, ages, sexes and coat colors are at risk. Interestingly, the birth and growth of a foal in a hot and humid climate does not reduce the risk of developing anhidrosis.

Due to varying degrees of sweating between affected horses, anhidrosis can be difficult to recognize by the horse owner or veterinarian. The incidence and potential severity of anhidrosis are higher in hot and humid climates, although anhidrosis can also be an issue in cooler dry areas. Chronic anhidrosis has been linked to atrophy of the sweat glands leading to a permanent loss of sweating ability.

Recognizing Equine Anhidrosis

Anhidrosis affects horses in different degrees, making recognizing and diagnosing the problem more difficult. For example, one horse may completely stop while other horses might only have a slight reduction in sweating capacity. Only certain body areas of the horse may sweat while others are dry – the horse may still sweat under the mane and under the saddle pad.

Brushing Horse Coat

Here are a few key symptoms of equine anhidrosis:

  • Heavy or labored breathing
  • Flared nostrils
  • Horse begins to pant with an open mouth
  • Body temperature over 104 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Increased heart rate and blood pressure
  • Noticeable lack of sweat – other horses may be sweating profusely
  • Lack of energy
  • Refusal to work
  • Desire to seek and remain in the shade
  • Coat is dry to the touch
  • Dry or itchy skin (chronic anhidrosis)
Dry Hooves and Summer Care

What Causes Anhidrosis in Horses?

Unfortunately, the mechanisms are unknown, and research into the cause continues. Many researchers and veterinarians believe the cause is attributed to:

  • Genetics
    • A genetic condition has been implicated – research is currently in progress at the University of Florida Large Animal Hospital
    • Some horses may be born with a reduced number of functional sweat glands
  • Nutrition and Diet
    • Excesses and deficiencies of nutrients can affect the skin and hair coat. Many of these nutritional-related issues may also contribute to anhidrosis.  

Treating Equine Anhidrosis

If your horse is becoming overheated or exhausted, there are short-term steps you can immediately take to help cool down the body temperature:

  • Move horse to a shady area or ventilated stall
  • Use portable fans or air conditioning
  • Hose down horse with cold water
  • Provide plenty of cold water to drink

No cure has been discovered for anhidrosis. Products available on the market may help enhance the horse’s ability to sweat. Life Data® Sweat Formula contains active ingredients that have produced positive results in most horses with anhidrosis.

Life Data® Anhidrosis Research

Life Data Sweat Formula
Click on Image to Learn More About Life Data® Sweat Formula.

Life Data® Sweat Formula is a new product developed from several years of anhidrosis research at Life Data Labs, Inc. The in-house Life Data® research lab utilizes blood tests and a sophisticated software program to determine the relationship between blood work results and specific conditions in horses. Equipment in the lab analyzes macro and trace mineral content of whole blood in horses to discover any correlations between certain minerals and specific conditions. Through this current research, Life Data® has discovered several consistent correlations between blood test deficiencies and excesses within a group of horses diagnosed with anhidrosis.

Life Data® Sweat Formula

Life Data® used this research to develop an anhidrosis formula for non-sweating horses. This formula delivers a combination of essential fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals to balance the deficiencies and excesses in the typical anhidrotic horse. The active ingredients will help improve skin and sweat gland condition to help regenerate the horse’s ability to sweat. For example, the fatty acids delivered in Life Data® Sweat Formula helps restore the lipids of the sweat gland membranes, which may help the transfer of fluids out of the sweat glands.

Depending on the individual horse the product may require daily administration for a period of several weeks prior to achieving the desired results.

If you believe your horse has anhidrosis it is important to consult with your veterinarian and regulate your horse’s activities. If you have any questions, feel free to email us at cservice@lifedatalabs.com or telephone at 256-370-7555.